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Trunk emits infrasonic calls: Asian elephant

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Asian elephant herd / Ekabhishek / LicenseCC-by - Attribution

Nasal passages of elephants communicate by emitting vibrations that cause infrasonic sounds.

BIOMIMICRY TAXONOMY
Summary
"The elephant was the first land animal shown to communicate infrasonically--a landmark discovery that came from two independent observations. In 1981, Kansas University scientists Dr. Rickye Heffner and Dr. Henry Heffner were surprised to discover that elephants could detect sound frequencies as low as 17 Hz, which were within the infrasonic range. But why should they be able to do this? What purpose does it serve?"

This sound was described by Dr. Katherine Payne from Cornell's Laboratory of Ornithology as, "I repeatedly noticed a palpable throbbing in the air like distant thunder, yet all around me was silent." (National Geographic article, August 1989). The sound reminded her of standing next to the largest organ pipe in her church when the organ blasted out the bass line in a Bach chorale.

Dr. Payne and others recorded elephants and found that "[W]ithin one month 400 separate calls had been recorded--three times the number of calls heard by the researchers in the sonic range. Analyses showed that the elephants emitted short calls at a frequence range of 14-24 Hz, which lasted for 5-10 minutes, over a period of 10 minutes.

"The tam also uncovered an important visual clue to the production of these secret sounds by elephants. When an elephant is volcalizing infrasonically, the skin on its brown flutters, vibrating gently as air passes through to its nasal passages...Since infrasound travels over long distances, it is useful in this regard. Subsequent studies have shown that elephants in Africa can hear calls from as far away as 2.5 miles (4 km) during the day, whereas in the evening this range can extend to up to 6 miles (10 km) as a result of temperature inversions in the atmosphere that make sound travel farther." (Shuker 2001:25-27)

Other infrasound communicators: okapis, giraffes, African and Asian elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, alligators, crocodiles, capercaillies, and baleen whales.
About the inspiring organism
Med_an_elephant_herd_at_jim_corbett_national_park Asian Elephant
Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758
Common name: Asiatic Elephant

Habitat(s): Artificial - Terrestrial, Forest, Grassland, Shrubland
Learn more at EOL.org
Some organism data provided by: ITIS: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System
Organism/taxonomy data provided by:
Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2008 Annual Checklist

Threat Categories LONG_EN IUCN Red List Status: Endangered

Bioinspired products and application ideas

Application Ideas: Infrasonic communication tools for marine and densely vegetated environments. Infrasonic sound detection tools for detecting earthquakes and tsunamis.

Industrial Sector(s) interested in this strategy: Communications, military, marine

Experts
Bioacoustics Research Program
Katy Payne
Laboratory of Ornithology at Cornell University
References
Shuker, KPN. 2001. The Hidden Powers of Animals: Uncovering the Secrets of Nature. London: Marshall Editions Ltd. 240 p.
Learn More at Google Scholar Google Scholar  

Payne K. 1998. Silent Thunder: The Hidden Voice of Elephants. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
Learn More at Google Scholar Google Scholar  

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seeni
over 2 years ago
wow its a nice thing that we here about the nature....
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