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Wings allow escape from spider webs: butterflies

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Scalar patterning of a butterfly's wing / Janice Carr / LicensePD - Public Domain

The wings of butterflies and moths help them escape spider webs and other predators because they have scales that easily detach.

BIOMIMICRY TAXONOMY
Summary
"Because butterflies and moths are always at risk of flying into spiderwebs, their wings are covered with detachable scales. When these insects are caught in a web or held in the grasp of a predator, the scales pull away freely and thus enable the moth or butterfly to slip away." (Forsyth 1992:12)


Thomas Eisner writes about testing how spider webs hold prey by dropping various insects onto the webs. "Most did not have a chance. It was the moths that seemed most consistently able to escape. They fluttered vigorously the moment we put them into an orb, but as a rule they were detained only momentarily. Some bounced off the web without sticking at all. Others, which did not change direction upon impact, slid momentarily over the web's surface, only to flutter free when they reached the edge. They all left impact marks on the webs where scales became detached to the viscid strands. Moth scars we came to call such telltale sites, and soon learned that they were common." (Eisner 2003:218-220) [In the photographs of p. 219 of this book, he shows wing scales of a moth and empty sockets left after the scales detached.]
About the inspiring organism
Med_3008915830_1d38c8757e_b Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera

Learn more at EOL.org
Organism/taxonomy data provided by:
Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2008 Annual Checklist


Bioinspired products and application ideas

Application Ideas: Of particular interest is that these scales stay on through wind and flight, yet release very easily when touched. Micromanufacturing to temporarily attach items until ready for complete assembly. Indicator of damage--loss of color indicates loss of sacrificial layer.

Industrial Sector(s) interested in this strategy: Manufacturing

Experts
Department of Neurobiology and Behavior
Thomas Eisner
Cornell University
References
Forsyth, A. 1992. Exploring the World of Insects: The Equinox Guide to Insect Behaviour. Camden House.
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Eisner, T. 2005. For Love Of Insects. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 448 p.
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