Feathers protect from water: Gentoo penguin
The feathers of penguins prevent water from penetrating to the skin due to their stiff, tightly packed structure.
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"Several studies have investigated the thermal resistance of penguin 'coats' (feather and skin assembly) and found it to be surprisingly low—an average of 0.74 m2KW-1 or 7.4 Tog. Penguin feathers are heavily modified, being short (30-40 mm), stiff and lance shaped. Insulation is provided by a long (20-30 mm) afterfeather. Penguins are unique in that the feathers are evenly packed over the surface of the body (30-40 per cm2) rather than arranged in tracts. For insulation the penguin requires a thick, air-filled, windproof coat (similar to an open-cell foam covered with a windproof layer) that eliminates convection and reduces radiative and convective heat losses to a minimum. However, when diving, the penguin requires a thin, smooth and waterproof coat with no trapped air (positive buoyancy would be a big disadvantage to an active swimming hunter). It achieves this by using muscles attached to the shaft of the feather to 'lock down' the feathers to create a water-tight barrier. In addition, the feather rachis is flattened dorso-ventrally allowing it to bend and conform to the body shape readily with increasing water pressure." (Dawson et al. 1999:199)
Pygoscelis papua (J. R. Forster, 1781)
IUCN Red List Status: Near Threatened
Habitat(s): Marine Coastal/Supratidal
Some organism data provided by: ITIS: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System
Organism/taxonomy data provided by:
Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2008 Annual Checklist
Application Ideas: Insulating mats for ponds; waterproof textiles; lightweight waterpoof panels for canoes, small boats, and other watercraft.
Industrial Sector(s) interested in this strategy: Water storage, textiles, boats