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Gills exchange oxygen efficiently: fish

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Red gills of a tuna / Chris 73 / LicenseCC-by-sa - Attribution Share Alike

The gills of fish remove oxygen from water with extreme efficiency because water flows countercurrent to capillary blood flow.

BIOMIMICRY TAXONOMY
Summary
"Water flow over the secondary lamellae is countercurrent to capillary blood flow, resulting in extremely efficient oxygen extraction. Gills also function in monovalent ion regulation (via specialized chloride cells) and nitrogenous waste excretion (ammonia)." (Fowler and Miller 2003:4)
About the inspiring organism
Chordata
Chordata

Learn more at EOL.org
Organism/taxonomy data provided by:
Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2008 Annual Checklist


Bioinspired products and application ideas

Application Ideas: Artificial gills that enable divers to remain underwater for extended periods of time without resurfacing. Fuel cells that remove available oxygen from water for use in reaction.

Industrial Sector(s) interested in this strategy: Diving, energy

References
Fowler, ME; Miller, RE. 2003. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.
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