Lightweighting: Scots pine
Trunks and branches of trees withstand external stresses through load-adaptive growth.
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"The key to this is Mattheck's contention that the structural optimisation in trees and apparent in other natural structures such as animal bones is all about making the external and internal stresses as uniform across the whole structure as possible. Mattheck calls this the 'axiom of uniform stress' and adds that, though he can cite plenty of examples of it, he cannot prove it exists…Mattheck's contention is that trees are constantly readjusting this balance by adding more material at points of high stress and adding no material at points of low or no stress. (Bones, he contends, go one stage further by actually shrinking at points of low stress.)
"In trees, junctions between main trunks and branches, for instance, are places of concentrated stresses. Trees compensate for this extra stress by adding more material to the shoulder." (Pullin 1998:17-18)
Pinus sylvestris L.
[Scots pine, Scotch pine]
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern
Some organism data provided by: Conifer Database
Organism/taxonomy data provided by:
Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2008 Annual Checklist
Application Ideas: Lightweighting for manufacture and construction of vehicles, buildings, bridges, prosthetics.
Industrial Sector(s) interested in this strategy: Construction, manufacturing, medicine.CAO and SKO design software - Lightweighting software to use with FEM (Finite Element Method)
LifeTree Psychological Tool - Psychological tool
Karlsruhe Research Centre, University of Karlsruhe