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Blood cells protect from dehydration: dromedary camel

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Dromedary camel / Wikimedia Co.. / LicenseCC-by-nc-sa - Attribution Non-commercial Share Alike

The red blood cells of the dromedary camel protect it from dehydration because the oval-shaped cells can circulate even in thick blood and can significantly expand during rehydration.

FUNCTION
Summary
The dromedary camel is incredibly well-adapted to hot, arid climates. The camel can go days without drinking water, surviving extreme dehydration and safely losing 40% of its body weight in water. This ability is, in part, due to uniquely oval red blood cells (which carry oxygen). The long axis of these oval cells is oriented with the flow of blood, enabling the cells to cross over the smallest of blood vessels, even when blood thickens during times of dehydration.

Additionally, the camel's red blood cells are capable of expanding up to 240% of their original volume without rupturing; most animals' cells can expand only 150%. This makes it possible for the camel to drink the necessarily large amount of water to recover from dehydration.
Excerpt
"Camelid erythrocytes are small...and elipsoid18,19,56,58 and circulate in larger numbers than in other mammalian species. The small size and shape result in a lower packed cell volume (PCV). Camelid erythrocytes are oriented with the long axis in the direction of the blood flow; this makes it possible to traverse small capillaries, resulting in fewer problems of sludging when the viscosity of the blood increases during dehydration." (Fowler 2010:407,411)

"Even after severe dehydration, the camel is able to drink sufficient water at one session to make up the deficit. This amount of water would cause severe osmotic problems in humans or other animals. In the camel, water is absorbed from the stomach and intestines slowly, allowing equilibrium to be established. The erythrocytes are able to avoid osmotic problems by swelling to 240% of their initial volume without rupturing... In other species, erythrocytes can swell only to 150%..." (Fowler 2010:28)
About the inspiring organism
dromedary
Camelus dromedarius Linnaeus, 1758
Common name: Dromedary

Habitat(s): Desert
Learn more at EOL.org
Some organism data provided by: ITIS: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System
Organism/taxonomy data provided by:
Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2008 Annual Checklist

IUCN Red List Status: Unknown

Bioinspired products and application ideas

Application Ideas: Ensuring smooth engine oil flow as temperatures fluctuate; fuel flow and storage applications; improved dispersal of sprayed products; liquid food storage applications; medical applications for improved blood flow

Industrial Sector(s) interested in this strategy: Automotive, agriculture, food, medical

Experts
Murray E. Fowler

References
Murray E. Fowler, DVM. 2010. Medicine and Surgery of Camelids. Wiley-Blackwell. 636 p.
Learn More at Google Scholar Google Scholar  

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Sherry
over 6 years ago
Thanks to Duarte Miguel Prazeres for finding and uploading this photo.
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