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Silk assembled on demand: spiders

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Spider spinning silk / Glen Peters.. / LicenseCC-by-nc-sa - Attribution Non-commercial Share Alike

Structural components of spider silk are safely stored and assembled on demand with help from a molecular switch.

BIOMIMICRY TAXONOMY
Summary
"Five times the tensile strength of steel and triple that of the currently best synthetic fibers: Spider silk is a fascinating materialHow do spiders form long, highly stable and elastic fibers from the spider silk proteins stored in the silk gland within split seconds?

"Spider silk consists of protein molecules, long chains comprising thousands of amino-acid elements. X-ray structure analyses show that the finished fiber has areas in which several protein chains are interlinked via stable physical connections. These connections provide the high stability. Between these connections are unlinked areas that give the fibers their great elasticity.

"The situation within the silk gland is, however, very different: The silk proteins are stored in high concentrations in an aqueous environment, awaiting deployment. The areas responsible for interlinking may not approach each other too closely; otherwise the proteins would clump up instantaneously. Hence, these molecules must have some kind of special storage configuration

"The protein chains are stored with the polar areas on the outside and the hydrophobic parts of the chain on the inside, ensuring good solubility in the aqueous environment.

"When the protected proteins enter the spinning duct, they encounter an environment with an entirely different salt concentration and composition. This renders two salt bridges of the control domain unstable, and the chain can unfold. Furthermore, the flow in the narrow spinning duct results in strong shear forces. The long protein chains are aligned in parallel, thus placing the areas responsible for interlinking side by side. The stable spider silk fiber is formed.

"'Our results have shown that the molecular switch we discovered at the C-terminal end of the protein chain is decisive, both for safe storage and for the fiber formation process,' says Franz Hagn." (Science Daily 2010)
About the inspiring organism
Araneae
Araneae

Learn more at EOL.org
Organism/taxonomy data provided by:
Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2008 Annual Checklist


Bioinspired products and application ideas

Application Ideas: Example of just-in-time manufacturing; strong, flexible fibers for use in buildings, thin sutures for eye or nerve surgery, plasters and other wound covers, artificial ligaments and tendons, textiles for parachutes, protective clothing and body armor, ropes.

Industrial Sector(s) interested in this strategy: Medicine, manufacturing, construction, textiles, military



Experts
Department of Chemistry
Dr. Horst Kessler
Technische Universitaet Muenchen
References
2010. Investigating how spiders spin their silk, researchers unravel a key step. Science Daily [Internet],
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Hagn F; Eisoldt L; Hardy JG; Vendrely C; Coles M; Scheibel T; Kessler H. 2010. A conserved spider silk domain acts as a molecular switch that controls fibre assembly. Nature. 465: 239-242.
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Rammensee S; Slotta U; Scheibel T; Bausch AR. 2008. Assembly mechanism of recombinant spider silk proteins. PNAS. 105(18): 6590-6595.
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Minkel JR. 2008. Researchers Build Micro Spider-Silk Spinner. Scientific American [Internet],
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