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Bacteria help volatilize and mineralize ammonia: termites

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Termite / mcyrusjohnso.. / LicenseCC-by - Attribution

The gut bacteria of soil-feeding termites help make soil nitrogen available to plants and protect from ammonia toxicity via ammonia volatilization and mineralization.

BIOMIMICRY TAXONOMY
Summary
"Volatilization of ammonia [about 10 nmol (g fresh wt.)_1 h_1], either directly by emission from the termite body or indirectly from their feces, led to NH3 concentrations in the nest atmosphere of C. [Cubitermes] ugandensis that were three orders of magnitude above the ambient background – a relative accumulation that is considerably higher than that observed with CH4 and CO2. Together with previous results, these observations document that through their feeding activity and due to the physicochemical and biochemical properties of their digestive system, soil-feeding termites effectively catalyze the transformation of refractory soil organic nitrogen to a plant-available form that is protected from leaching by adsorption to the nest soil. Nitrogen mineralization rates of soil-feeding termites may surpass those effected by tropical earthworms and should contribute significantly to nitrogen fluxes in tropical ecosystems." (Ji and Brune 2006:267)
About the inspiring organism
Termitidae
Termitidae

Learn more at EOL.org
Organism/taxonomy data provided by:
Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2008 Annual Checklist


Bioinspired products and application ideas

Application Ideas: Interactions between ammonia and methane oxidation, ammonia monitors, water pond test kits.

Industrial Sector(s) interested in this strategy: Manufacturing, fabric, carpet industry

Experts
The Brune Group: Insect Gut Microbiology and Symbiosis
Andreas Brune
Department of Biogeochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology
References
Ji, R.; Brune, A. 2006. Nitrogen mineralization, ammonia accumulation, and emission of gaseous NH3 by soil-feeding termites. Biogeochemistry. 78(3): 267-283.
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