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Photosynthesis: Cooke's koki'o

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Kokia cookei (Cooke's koki'o) / Tina Fuller / LicenseCC-by - Attribution

Photosynthesis in plants converts solar energy to chemical energy by splitting water to release hydrogen.

BIOMIMICRY TAXONOMY
Summary
Plant-inspired solar cells mimic photosynthetic dyes and processes to generate solar energy many times more cheaply than silicon-based photovoltaics, while having the flexibility to be integrated with a building skin. Conventional silicon-based solar panels capture, separate, and transport light energy in one highly-purified material whose manufacture requires large amounts of energy, toxic solvents, and bulky infrastructure to support rigid panels. Alternatively, dye-sensitive solar cells use a variety of photo-sensitive dyes and common, flexible materials that can be incorporated into architectural elements such as window panes, building paints, or textiles. Although traditional silicon-based photovoltaic solar cells currently have higher solar energy conversion ratios, dye-sensitive solar cells have higher overall power collection potential due to low-cost operability under a wider range of light and temperature conditions, and flexible application.
Excerpt
"The equation for photosynthesis is a deceptively simple summary of a very complex process. Actually, photosynthesis is not a single process, but two processes, each with multiple steps. These two stages of photosynthesis are known as the light reactions (the photo part of photosynthesis) and the Calvin cycle (the synthesis part).

"The light reactions are the steps of photosynthesis that convert solar energy to chemical energy. Water is split, providing a source of electrons and protons (hydrogen ions, H) and giving off O2 as a by-product. Light absorbed by chlorophyll drives a transfer of the electrons and hydrogen ions from water to an acceptor called NADP+  (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate), where they are temporarily stored. The electron acceptor NADP+ is first cousin to NAD+, which functions as an electron carrier in cellular respiration; the two molecules differ only by the presence of an extra phosphate group in the NADP+ molecule. The light reactions use solar power to reduce NADP+ to NADPH by adding a pair of electrons along with an H+. The light reactions also generate ATP, using chemiosmosis to power the addition of a phosphate group to ADP, a process called photophosphorylation. Thus, light energy is initially converted to chemical energy in the form of two compounds: NADPH, a source of electrons as 'reducing power' that can be passed along to an electron acceptor, reducing it, and ATP, the versatile energy currency of cells. Notice that the light reactions produce no sugar; that happens in the second stage of photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle." (Campbell 2004:188-189)
About the inspiring organism
Med_52459 Cooke's koki'o
Kokia cookei O. Deg.
Common name: Moloka‘i koki‘o

Habitat(s): Forest
Learn more at EOL.org
Some organism data provided by: ITIS: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System
Organism/taxonomy data provided by:
Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2008 Annual Checklist

Threat Categories LONG_EW IUCN Red List Status: Extinct in the Wild

Bioinspired products and application ideas

Application Ideas: Dye-sensitized solar cells

Industrial Sector(s) interested in this strategy: Energy



References
Campbell, Neil A.; Reece, Jane B. 2004. Biology. Benjamin Cummings.
Learn More at Google Scholar Google Scholar  

Comments

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Daro1003
about 1 year ago
This comment was removed by a AskNature editor for the following reason:
SPAM
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Sherry
over 3 years ago
Cooke's koki'o is just an example of a plant for the purposes of talking about photosynthesis. In general in AskNature we show the species that was actually studied, but for more general strategies like photosynthesis, we sometimes picked an endangered species to illustrate how much we lose when we lose a species from Earth.
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MaryBall
over 3 years ago
How could a Hawaiian tree that is extinct in the wild (see the recovery plan at http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/980527.pdf) possibly have been the inspiration for a dye-based solar cell??
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stgula20
over 5 years ago
This comment was removed by a AskNature editor for the following reason:
It was a test message.
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stgula20
over 5 years ago
This comment was removed by a AskNature editor for the following reason:
It was a test message.
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admin
over 6 years ago
A couple related news stories:

Harnessing Light:
http://pubs.acs.org/cen/science/87/8715sci1.html

Attempts To Mimic A Plant's Light-Harvesting And Water-Splitting Megamachinery:
http://pubs.acs.org/cen/science/87/8715sci1a.html
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