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Cuticle acts as cooling mechanism: Oriental hornet


Vespa orientalis / Sarah Faulwe.. / LicenseCC-by-nc - Attribution Non-commercial

The cuticle of wasps provides a cooling mechanism by use of hairs, thin layers, and tracheal branches.

"Hornets and wasps are unique in that, even in the absence of sweat glands, they are able to buzz around at temperatures of 40 degrees Celsius without overheating. A new theory presented by Jacob Ishay and colleagues at Tel Aviv University suggests that hornets may keep cool by using their cuticle as an electrical heat pump. The team believes that hornet cuticle is comprised of a stack of thermocouples, which transfer heat from one type of conductive material to another when voltage is applied. The voltage in this scenario would be the hornet's own metabolism, or conversely, solar energy." (Courtesy of the Biomimicry Guild)

Illustration of oriental hornet cooling. Artist: Emily Harrington. Copyright: All rights reserved. See gallery for details.

"In the social wasps Vespa orientalis and Paravespula germanica (Hymenoptera, Vespinae), a thermogenic center has been found in the dorsal part of the first thoracic segment. The temperature in this region of the prothorax is higher by 6-9°C than that at the tip of the abdomen, and this in actively flying hornets outside the nest (workers, males or queens) as well as in hornets inside the nest that attend to the brood in the combs. On viewing the region from the outside, one discerns a canal or rather a fissure in the cuticle, which commences at the center of the dorsal surface of the prothorax and extends till the mesothorax. Thus the length of this canal or fissure is ~5-7 mm and it is seen to contain numerous thin hairs whose shape varies from that of the hairs alongside the structure. Beneath the cuticle in this region there are dorsoventral as well as longitudinal muscles in abundance, much the same as the musculature in the remaining thoracic segments (i.e. the meso- and metathorax), which activate the two pairs of wings. The canal-bearing segment is of course devoid of wings, and its dorsoventral muscles are attached to the cuticle, which in this region resembles a bowl harboring several layers of epithelium that boasts numerous butterfly-shaped tracheal branches. Additionally there are layers that display lymph-filled spaces and also perforated layers and depressions, and beneath all these is a lace-like layer that also coats the cuticle's hollows. Underneath the cuticle proper, there are numerous large mitochondria and tracheae, which occupy a considerable part of the cuticular epithelium surface. These abundant mitochondria are, most probably, the main element of heat production in the thermogenic center." (Ishay et al. 2006:41)

About the inspiring organism
Med_2954727203_3e31ee19bf_b Vespa orientalis
Vespa orientalis Linnaeus, 1761
Common name: Oriental hornet

Learn more at
Some organism data provided by: ZOBODAT: Zoological-Botanical Database (Vespoidea)
Organism/taxonomy data provided by:
Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2008 Annual Checklist

IUCN Red List Status: Unknown

Bioinspired products and application ideas

Application Ideas: Biomimetic cooling system, packaging that withstands heat during transportation

Industrial Sector(s) interested in this strategy: Construction

Tel-Aviv University
Jacob S. Ishay, Marian Plotkin, Stanislav Volynchik, Zahava Barkay, Noam Eliaz, David J. Berman
Ishay, J. S.; Plotkin, M.; Ermakov, N. Y.; Volynchik, S.; Barkay, Z.; Bergman, D. J. 2006. The thermogenic center in social wasps. Journal of Electron Microscopy. 55(1): 41-49.
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over 5 years ago
Thanks to Emily Harrington for her illustration of the thermogenic center, and the canal with its hairs, cuticle, and the trachea and mitochondria underneath.
over 5 years ago
Thanks to Emily Harrington for finding and uploading this photo.
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